The National Education Toolkit for Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Awareness
Why is Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting such a serious health risk?
The effects of FGM/C will vary depending on the individual. Some women will experience severe and life-long physical and mental health problems while others may not feel that FGM/C has affected their health at all.
Immediate and short-term health complications can include:
- bleeding (which can be fatal) and extreme pain
- infection and inability to pass urine
Ongoing and long-term health complications can include:
- menstrual problems
- recurrent urinary and kidney infections
- difficulties having sexual intercourse including extreme pain, sexual dysfunction
- difficulties during labour and birth (Caesarean birth is common)
- recurrent cysts and abscesses can occur in the area, leading to chronic pelvic inflammation and long term pain
- incontinence, prolapses and fistulas
- difficulty in using some contraceptive methods
For some women, FGM/C can have long-term psychological effects including depression, loss of sleep, nightmares and post-traumatic stress.
Common questions about Female Genital
Mutilation / Cutting (FGM/C)
(Click on the question)
Facts About FGM/C
Health and Human Rights
Types of FGM/C